Mt. Gallo is a carbonate relief which formed from the Mesozoic (225 million years ago) to the Middle Eocene (54 and 33.7 million years ago). It is a karstic mountain presenting several superficial and endogenic erosive features and several cavities. Mt. Gallo is a promontory facing the sea. The northern slope has maintained well-preserved natural features, while the southern slope is characterized by a stony, barren, and steppe-like soil: today is a grassland dominated by Ampelodesma, while in the past it was cultivated with olive trees and carob trees.